This page has answers questions on crias behaviour, feeding gaits,
how they are with horses, halters, toenails, and more.
(Updated December 15, 2002)
Q. Our new cria did not nurse for six hours. I was in a state of panic with the colostrum on hand. I called our vet and other breeders and they keep saying wait, but I was sure she would starve to death. How can I be sure she is really getting enough milk?
A. It is always a relief to see the baby nursing and there certainly is a tendency to panic when they don’t seem to try. Nature is a wonderful thing and most crias will find the right spot as soon as they are hungry. They certainly won’t starve to death, but it is vital that they get that first colostrum within the first twenty-four hours and preferably much sooner. One thing we often try with a cria that hasn’t nursed yet is to get a little milk on a finger and let the baby suck on it. This will often stimulate the desire to nurse and is a good way to check and see if there is a sucking reflex. If a baby seems weak we will milk off some colostrum and give it some using a syringe carefully in the side of the mouth. A finger held on the tongue will get the baby swallowing. Sometimes we will position the cria in the right area and try to get its mouth on a nipple, but normally they will find the right spot themselves. They can fool you if you just go by the slurping sound as they may not be on the nipple. It is a good idea to shear some of the fibre around the udder to help the baby find the correct place. They will often suck on the leg or on the fibre when they are looking. If they are inside, the stall should be well-lit as often the cria will go to a dark corner while looking for milk.
If a cria is nursing approximately once every hour for the first while you can assume that it is getting enough milk. If it is going under mom every fifteen or twenty minutes, that might be an indication that it is still hungry. This is a situation where you might have to supplement with a bottle or syringe. Some owners will tube milk into the baby but unless you have been shown how to do that properly it is safer to use a bottle, even though it may take longer. Our vet has shown us how to tube a cria several times and I am still terrified to try it.
Q. Is baby poop yellow?
A. Yes. For the first few days it may be quite yellow and runny, particularly if mom has a lot of milk.
Q. After 24 hours of bonding in a large nursery area we let them out during the day. It is 35 to 40 degrees at night, should we put the baby in the barn? Should we use a cria coat?
A. As long as the baby is strong and healthy it should be allowed to go outside with the rest of the herd. Babies need to get exercise and learn to run. We will put the babies in the barn overnight for the first few nights if it is below freezing or we expect heavy rain. The fibre on most crias will fluff out during the first day and it is designed to keep them warm. If it is damp and windy or freezing cold, then a cria coat is recommended.
Q. If we use a cria coat at night can we remove it during the day, or is it like the under shirt you wore as a child. Your mom put it on in October and never took it off until summer.
A. If the weather is decent during the day, by all means take the cria coat off. Animals have survived in the wild for thousands of years without cria coats.
Sur Galahad, the cria on the right, was born prematurely while the weather was very cold needed a cria coat for a couple of weeks. He also has a sock with the toe cut out to keep his neck warm.
Q. What if it is raining, The mom likes to lay out in the rain, but what happens if a rain drop gets on my baby?
A. Most moms will take the babies to a sheltered spot, but occasionally they don’t seem to be concerned about it. A little rain won’t hurt, but you have to keep an eye on them in that situation and if a baby seems to be getting soaking wet, we will sometimes pick the baby up and carry it inside. Mom will follow and then we will towel off the baby and leave them inside until the weather improves. If it is really cold, we might use a hair dryer as well to get the cria warm and dry.
Q. We have a little male who is one month old now. When will he be old enough to breed? Is there anything we need to be aware of with having a stud llama on the farm. (Our only other llamas are his mother and another female, we aren’t sure if they are related.)
A. You have to very be careful with how you handle young males. Whatever you do, don’t cuddle him and make him a pet! It is vital that he bonds with the other two llamas and not with humans. It is really hard because the crias are so cute, and it is much harder when it is your first one.
Young males think that they are already studs and if he is a month old now he will probably be practicing breeding already. They will try to mount the females, including their mother, and the females usually tolerate it but eventually they will spit at him if he gets too persistent. The young males don’t seem to need another male around to learn this behaviour, it seems to be a natural thing. They even get the orgling noise down.
A male should not be used for breeding until he is at least two years of age, preferably three years. They are sometimes capable of impregnating a female much earlier though, we have heard of it happening with males as young as ten months.
You should also attempt to find out whether the other female is related before he is old enough to breed.
Q. We have a two-week-old cria whose mother does not give much, if any milk. We have been bottle feeding it since birth twice a day. It will only take about 12 ounces twice a day now which is not enough. We are using Foal-ac milk replacer, but I have been told to start using lamb replacer. She weighed 20 lbs. at birth and has gained no weight in two weeks. She still tries to nurse from her mother.
A. Any foal or lamb replacer would be fine, in fact by this age we have switched to homogenized milk. We have had a couple of cria with the same problem and we have used a product called Bio-Start for ruminants, used by the sheep people. It is a Lactobacillus Acidophilus Fermentation which is made in New Zealand. This can be used on both the mother and cria and certainly seems to help the cria get started. I believe this has something of the same properties as yogurt and I have heard of people adding a little yogurt to the milk. We also try to get the cria to eat a little calf manna, putting it in the side of the mouth and keeping your finger there to keep it in until they chew on it. We also do the same with alfalfa leaves. Anything you can get into them at this point will help and they usually start eating grain early. There an item for sale in the Useful Llama Items catalogue (Phone 1-800-635-5262) located in Michigan that might be helpful: Fastrack which is a probiotic feed and paste. I doesn’t say much about it but I suspect it does much the same but they claim it is to encourage weight gain and adequate lactation. This might be worth a try.
Don’t give up, we have had a couple that were really slow getting started and didn’t gain any weight for the first few weeks and are perfectly healthy animals now.
Follow-up Q. You mentioned that you had a couple of crias with this problem. Did you ever determine a cause, or did you feel it was genetic for the females not to be as good milkers as others? Did the females come into their milk later? One breeder told me he had two females that took almost two weeks after birthing for them to come into their milk.
A. Yes, we had a couple of mothers with not much milk. One of them was her first cria and the baby was a preemie. She was fine with her second cria. The other just doesn’t seem to have much milk and yes, I guess it is genetic, however, her mother (cria’s grandmother always has lots of milk and so have her sisters). She had trouble with her next two crias and we haven’t bred her back. Sometimes the cause can be an overweight mom and the fat gets into the udder This particular mom is definitely on the heavy side and always one of the first at the feeder. Even with getting the weight off the mom it is very difficult to get it off the udder area. The other thing is that a first time mom’s milk can come in a week or two later if the cria is persistent in nursing so in our opinion a first time mom should be given a second chance before deciding not to breed her again.
Q. I know a man who has several llamas and a while back one of the llamas spit in his face. The llamas that he has, do not have babies. For some odd reason one of those llamas attacked him. The llama basically had him on the ground kicking his butt! After finally getting away from the llama, he got up and went into the house and returned with a shotgun and killed the llama. My question to you is this: What are the chances of the llama attacking this man for no reason?
A. Llamas do not attack for no reason. The llama had a reason whether we realize it or not.
I don’t have a lot to go on by what you have told me but I can probably guess. A young male llama can be ruined by people if they pay too much attention to him. They will bond with humans very quickly and when they are young they will be very friendly and cuddly. The problems can occur when they are bottle fed for some time, a first llama born on a farm that gets too much attention, or a young animal that is in a petting zoo. These situations all tend to make the youngster too familiar with humans and they don’t bond properly with other llamas.
When this type of male becomes sexually mature, probably between two to three years of age, he now perceives the human (most often the male human) as competition. Male llamas will fight amongst themselves at this age which, of course, is a natural behaviour. A normal male, however will not attack a human, if we had a couple of males having a great fight, I would not hesitate to go into the field when they are finished and lead them back to their own field. I would stay out of their way when they are fighting though, because they could run over me by accident. A confused, problem male may attack a human, as his hormones tell him to get rid of the competition.
The llamas from petting zoos usually end up at a local auction when they are bought very cheaply and the unsuspecting buyer thinks he has a cute cuddly pet. Until one day when he gets knocked down. The signs are usually there before, with occasional spitting and screaming. The llama may read the owner’s body language, for instance, if the owner was bending down pulling weeds. To the llama, the bending down is a sign of submission, and in his mind now he is in charge. Young llamas will have a submissive posture around an older male, with their neck down and their tail up which means I don’t want to fight, you are the boss.
Llamas have built-in behaviours and when we mess them up, it is not the llama’s fault, the blame is solely on the human owner. The behaviour I described earlier used to known as Berserk Llama Syndrome but now the politically correct name is Aberrant Behaviour Syndrome but no matter what it is called, it is a very serious problem and I have never heard of it being cured. It is not genetic, it is a learned behaviour.
A problem animal such as this can be very dangerous, not only to the owner, but to anyone passing by. Imagine what could happen if this animal jumped the fence and attacked someone on the street.
Obviously from your letter you love animals, as we do, and the killing of that llama may seem cruel and inhumane, but if my assumptions are correct, it may have been more dangerous to keep the llama alive. Having an animal like that on a farm is very stressful for both the owners and the neighbours, as the llama is very unpredictable.
For more information see:
Q. I keep a male llama as a pet and for backpacking with my horses. He’s pretty friendly and comes when he is called but then is standoffish. I’d like to know if you know of any treats they are crazy about, such as bananas, fruit, corn, anything like that just as a treat. My horses and cows love the pears off the trees and I’d like to find something my male would really like. Any ideas?
A. Being standoffish is a natural behaviour and is better than having him in your face. As far as treats, llamas are just as fussy as, if not more, than humans. We used to take two males for a walk around the neighbourhood and when we came to an apple tree, I would cut up some apples as a treat. One of them loved the apples and the other one wouldn’t touch them. I would cut up the apples as I have heard of animals choking on whole apples.
A treat that we have found useful is a feed that is made for horses which are small pieces about half an inch by one inch. It is manufactured by Masterfeeds in Alberta, Canada and I haven’t seen anything similar in the United States. We take bags down for friends in Washington State. We find that this is better than grain for a treat as if it is dropped it can be picked up whereas a lot of grain gets wasted when hand feeding. If you can’t find anything similar to this, grain is usually attractive to the llamas. We give them a bit of dairy ration every day and most of them will take it out of our hands as well.
If your llama won’t come close enough, try putting his grain on a Frisbee or in a small bucket. You can put it on the ground and stand back a bit, gradually getting a little closer each time. Eventually you should be able to get him eating out of the Frisbee while holding it in your hand. The next step would be to try getting him to eat out of your hand.
A few other things that llamas seem to really like are carrot tops and corn husks. After we pick the corn, I cut off the corn stalks and put them in the fields. When I am feeding our birds, the llamas will come and investigate the bucket of cracked corn and they seem to like that as well. I have heard of people giving their llamas bananas, but I understand that the bananas may have some pretty serious pesticides on the peels.
If you are backpacking, most of these things are impractical for a treat but the grain or horse cubes can be carried in a jacket pocket. Maybe he would like alfalfa cubes if you can find small enough ones. Most of the ones made for horses are fairly large and they are hard to break into smaller pieces for the llamas.
Basically you need a lot of patience to get them to trust you enough to eat out of your hand.
Q. I think that my llamas are a bit overweight now. How much of the flake of hay should I be giving them per feeding and how many hay feedings should they be given per day?
A. Each llama will need about one flake of hay per day. Some llamas get rather piggy and if you leave hay out all of the time they will just keep eating and soon become overweight. Right now we have three females in a fatty field where they get no grain and one flake of hay each per day. We also have a skinny field with three other girls who we are trying to get a little weight on. They get twice the normal grain ration in the morning and again in the evening as well as lots of hay to which we add a little alfalfa.
Q. I have a llama chow that they eat as well. The bag says (depending on the weight of the animal) up to three pounds of it a day.
A. That seems like a lot of feed. Remember the people who wrote that are selling llama feed.
We use dairy ration which is mixture of flattened grains and molasses. In the summer they get about half a cup of that each day and when the weather is really cold they may get a cup each. We are probably talking about a quarter to half a pound of grain per day for the average llama.
In the wild, they wouldn’t have any grain at all and would have to make do on any grass and plants that they can find.
One of the nice things about having a web page like this is that you hear from so many people. Wendy Streeter from the Okanagan in British Columbia sent us the following recipe for llama cookies.
She wrote I found this recipe on the web sometime ago but it was under horse cookies. I had bought some llama treats for my llama and these were much the same so I made them for him and he just loves them. I cut the rolls about 1/4 inch or just a smidge more and roll them about the size of a quarter. Hope your animals like them.
1 cup uncooked oatmeal
1 cup flour
1 cup shredded carrots
1 tsp. salt
1 tbsp. sugar
2 tbsp. vegetable oil
1/4 cup water
1/4 cup molasses
Mix ingredients in bowl as listed. Make balls and place on cookie sheet. Bake at 350 for 15 minutes or golden brown in color. I found the dough very goopy so I rolled it in plastic wrap in a roll about the size of a quarter and partially froze it so that it would slice off in neat little rounds, like refrigerator cookies. Works very well.
Tip: I found that sometimes 15 minutes is not long enough so I lower the heat to 250 and leave them in the oven until they are hard. You may have to turn them a few times also.
Be sure to break them into small pieces when feeding them to your llamas as they could choke on a large piece.
For more information see:
Q. I was wondering if you could tell me how llamas run. Do they run like dogs with their feet meeting in the middle or do they run more like camels, moving their right and left sides separately?
A. I never thought too much about this before so I just went out to check and got some young ones running around. They move the left and right sides separately with the front foot moving forward just before the rear foot hits the ground. The following images are captured sequentially from a video camera. The first sequence is a young female, Georgia O’Keeffe walking.
When they start running, they push off with both back feet together. The following sequence shows Kachina Doll galloping. She suddenly realized that the gate to the lower field was open and all the other girls were already there.
Quite often, just before dark the young ones will start pronkingwith all four feet off the ground at once, similar to a deer. They land in a stiff-legged stance on all four feet at the same time. Sometimes the adults will join in this game and the whole herd will go bouncing around the field. This young gelding, Salvador Dali, gets quite excited when the moms and babies are let into the field next to him each morning. He will often pronk around the field several times.
New, we have uploaded three videos of llamas running
Q. We just came across a friend with a male (stud?) today who wanted to sell him and we came here for answers. We already have the usual farm/zoo. We do have a couple of unanswered questions still and thought you could be of help.
Why neuter/geld one? Can we, through good training, make a good pet/companion/worker with a three or four year old stud? Can they be kept in paddock/pasture with horses? How much weight can an adult male pull in a light training cart on level, paved road for 10 miles, in fair weather?
A. There should be no need to geld him if he is not going to be in with other male llamas. Then main reason for gelding is to keep the males from fighting with each other.
A llama is usually quite content to be in with horses as they do seem to need companionship but they are happier if there is another llama around. The horses however, may not be too impressed. Some horses get quite upset the first time they meet a llama so they should be introduced carefully. The horse will most likely decide he is boss and may, at some point, kick the llama which can be serious if if the llama gets kicked in the leg. We have had llamas in with horses and have had no problems.
An adult male llama can easily pull a couple of adults in a cart.
Follow-up Q. It looks like we may get the stud we were looking at. He will be the only llama we have now and will live on our farm with horses, goats, chickens, dog, and be our pet. We hope to train him to work some for us driving, pulling, and carrying. He has not been handled much at all. First how do we catch him and bring him home without traumatizing him? What should we do or not do during this transition to new surroundings? We plan on keeping him with the horses or goats. Where do we get a halter? Are dog ones OK? Or pony? Help us get him home and make him a happy addition to our farm please.
A. If he has been pretty free in a field for a few years, he is not going to be too impressed with being caught. Even some of the ones that are used to being haltered like to make a game of it and run around the field for a while. You will have to work him into a small area or pen, maybe ten feet square. If that is not possible try to work him into a stall in the barn.
Haltering him may be a problem and you have to be careful as they can toss their heads around and you can get smacked in the face. As a last resort, have someone grab hold of both ears and twist. This will get his mind off of the halter for a short time and you should be able to get it on.
The picture on the right shows a proper fitting llama halter. As you can see by the ears, Brandy was not really pleased to have her photo taken.
Pony or dog halters will not be suitable. There are llama halters available at llama tack stores. Here is a list of some, in no particular order:
Llamas and More
Bend, Oregon, Phone 1-888-228-2588 - E-mail: email@example.com
Quality Llama Products
Lebanon, Oregon, Phone 1-800-638-4689 - E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Rocky Mountain Llamas
Longmont, Colorado, Phone (303) 530-5575
Worthington, Minnesota, Phone 1-800-469-5262
Useful Llama Items
Caledonia, Michigan, Phone 1-800-635-5262
The Bickerson’s Farm
Kelowna, British Columbia, Phone 1-800-862-1939 - E-mail: email@example.com
McGregor’s Llama Ranch
Bethanay, Ontario, Phone (705) 277 9440
There are more tack stores listed on our links page.
Before you get your halter you can work with him in the field offering him some grain in a bucket for example. Let him get to know you and realize that you are not a threat to him. You will need a lot of patience to earn his trust.
Once you get his halter on, I would suggest a soft lead rope rather than the flat nylon leads as he will probably resist and it is easier to hang on to a rope. It may be a good idea to tie a knot or two in towards the end so you can hang onto it better.
When you get him home, it would be a good idea to keep him in a stall for a day or so with some nice hay and fresh water so that he has a place that he can feel safe. He may be a bit nervous about the horses, but should get used to the goats fairly quickly. You will probably notice that in a short time he will tend to protect the goats.
For more information see:
Q. Could you tell me when should a llama get its feet or toenails clipped and who does it?
A. There are a number of factors involved here. Some of our llamas have never needed their toenails trimmed while others need them cut every six months or so. We have had one male since 1981 and his toenails have never needed doing. This seems to be genetic as he is on a soft pasture, but often on soft ground the nails don’t get worn down and will start to curl under the foot. If you see this happening the nails should be cut or the llama will have problems walking eventually. Be careful not to cut into the quick.
It is not too big a deal to trim most llama’s feet. If you can train them to lift up their feet on command it actually becomes a non-event for them. However sometimes they can make quite a scene and we have one male whose feet have been trimmed a number of times who, the last time screamed the whole time they were being done. He may have been embarrassed as about twenty females were leaning over the fence at the time. The screaming was so impressive that I taped it and put the sound on the web page.
Some owners will put gravel along a male’s fence line to help wear down the nails as the males tend to pace back and forth along some of the fences.
Llamas don’t have very many problems with their feet at all. We have had the wettest winter in years and there were only a couple that that had cracks in their foot pads. You should check the pads for cracks or holes occasionally as the pads can be in poor shape especially if they have been in mud. We usually apply some Coppertox or Kopper Kare to help strengthen damaged pads.
Trimming toenails is not particularly difficult as long as the animal is used to having its feet touched. If the llama doesn’t like its feet touched then it is a good idea to restrain it in a chute. Because our backs have seen better days, we usually get the vet to trim nails when he is here for general herd health days.
Watch your llama’s feet and trim the toes before they get like the ones in the picture on the left. Long, curved toenails like this can make it difficult for the llama to walk.
The photo on the right shows how clippers are used. The far right nail has been trimmed properly and the left nail is about to be done.
Q. We have a five-month-old solid black llama. We were told that solid black males were unusual. Before we geld (as we already have one stud) we would like to know if this is true.
A. Solid, true black is not too common, especially where the skin is black. Most of the darker animals seem to fade to brownish as they age but if he is still dark at five months you should have a true black animal.
Q. If we decide to geld our five-month-old would he be able to stay in with the girls. He is already trying to be studley with the girls, seems to never leave them alone!
A. That’s normal behaviour for a male youngster. He might even be able to impregnate them at nine or ten months. It has happened.
About the gelding, our vet doesn’t recommend gelding until they are about two years old, as they quite often get very leggy if they are gelded at an early age. If you can find a separate area for him, it would be best as your girls would be safe and you would have another year and a half to decide if he is stud material. The other option would be if the girls were definitely pregnant, you could leave him in with them and they wouldn’t let him near.
Just because he is black doesn’t mean he will throw black. We have bred the same combination twice and once we got a pure white cria and the next time we got a solid black cria.
Q. Can one place an intact one-year-old male with another intact male (no fighting teeth) three-years-old and a female about three years?
A. A number of people run their whole males together, but we keep all of ours separately as there can be lots of scraps and screaming. Two males will occasionally fight even if one is gelded. We often have a field of young males, but eventually we refer to it as our Field of Screams.
The reason for fighting is usually to establish who is the boss. Your three-year old will probably put the younger one in his place. The younger one will most likely show a submissive posture, head down, tail up, which says I don’t want to have trouble. If he does this they should get along until he gets old enough to challenge the older male.
If the female is already bred things should be calm but if she is open the two males will start competing for her.
A lot of it depends on the temperament of the animals but I would put them together and see how it works out. There may be some chasing around and screaming for a little while, but they should settle down. It is normal behaviour for them and would still likely occur even if one was gelded.
Q. I was checking out deadly nightshade on the web and came across your page. I am a new llama owner, I was given two six-year-olds. Do llamas naturally avoid some things, such as the nightshade? There is plenty of other browse in the pasture such as fir trees with low branches, blackberry bushes, and grass. I also give them hay. I have tried to eliminate the nightshade, but it seems everytime I walk around there I find another. Is only the berry posionous, or the whole plant?
A. The whole plant is dangerous and I would think that the llamas would be more likely to eat the leaves than the berries. It is very difficult to eradicate it by pulling it out as it the roots seem to break off and the plant is there again next year. The only way I have gotten rid of it is to use Round-Up, which I really don’t like doing.
If your llamas have blackberry leaves and lots of other things to graze and browse on they probably won’t eat the deadly nightshade, but I can’t guarantee it. I have never noticed ours eating it, but I always pull it out as soon as I see it.
Llamas don’t naturally seem to avoid a lot of poisonous plants such as azaleas and I would imagine part of it is because those plants are not native to South America. It is pretty scary when you think about how many dangerous plants people have in their yards. For more information on poisonous plants check out this page on our site.
I am glad that you are giving them hay as well as they seem to need the dry material as well as the fresh leaves and grass. You also have to know what is in the hay as some fields may have toxic plants in them as well. We had a really bad time few years ago and lost four females because of too much chicken manure on a load of hay that we bought.
If you keep walking your field and pulling out the deadly nightshade, your llamas should be just fine.
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|Page One||Page Two||Page Three|
|Are there different kinds of llamas?||What are their feet like?||Can you eat them?|
|Where do llamas come from?||Do they spit?||What is their temperament?|
|Are they expensive?||Could I have one as a pet?||Are they good with children?|
|What do llamas eat?||What can you do with them?||What kind of fencing do they need?|
|What kind of shelter do they need?||Can you ride them?||How do you transport them?|
|What kind of sounds do they make?||Are they hard to train?||When do they have their babies?|
|How big do they get?||Are there any unpleasant odors?||Do llamas need help when birthing?|
|Do they bite?||What are their natural enemies?||What do llama crias look like?|
|Do llamas lose their baby teeth?||What do you call a baby llama?||How much should my cria weigh?|
|Page Four (Present Page)||Page Five||Page Six|
|Cria questions, nursing, cria coats||How do you shear llamas?||Breeding questions|
|Is baby poopyellow?||How long do llamas live?||Eating bark|
|Llama feeding and treats||Can llamas be used for therapy?||Scientific classification|
|Behaviour questions||How do I earn my llama’s trust?||Birthing and dog questions|
|Llama gaits||Handling young llamas||Training commands|
|Llamas with horses, halters, gelding||Will they eat out of my hand?||How much space do they need?|
|How do I trim toenails?||Why is my llama standoffish?||Barbed wire and electric fences|
|Black colour||Should we groom our youngsters?||What is their spit like?|
|Can I have intact males together?||What about leading youngsters around?||Llama poop|
|Deadly nightshade||Problem with choking||Llamas and deep snow|
|Page Seven||Page Eight||Page Nine|
|Shedding wool||Children’s llama books||Llamas as sheep guards|
|Can llamas eat apples?||Where can I find llama songs for children?||Grooming brushes|
|Fighting with other animals||Can llamas be fed alfalfa?||How much can they carry?|
|Protecting other llamas||Llamas and goats||Do llamas swim?|
|Skittish llama and haltering||Llama and new horse||What colour are llamas?|
|Mouth abscess||Llamas and coyotes||What colour is llama milk?|
|Why is my llama afraid of me?||Do llamas get ticks?||Are there shows about llamas?|
|Intact males with other llamas||Do llamas get fleas?||Do they tolerate new dogs?|
|Can I have a cria with an intact male?||Getting a llama to kush||What is the best age to buy a llama?|
|Page Ten||Page Eleven||Page Twelve|
|Can they eat corn?||Llamas vs alpacas||How is llama pronounced?|
|Pooping in the barn||Blue-eyed llamas||When do you wean babies?|
|Llamas and cats||How fast can a llama run?||How tall do they get?|
|Llamas and freezing weather||How do you estimate their age?||What does clucking mean?|
|How far can they go?||Llamas crossed with emus???||Llamas and heavy loads|
|Spitting llama||Llamas eating pine trees||Halter fitting|
|Touching young llamas||Males and females together?||Do llamas guard poultry?|
|Llama kisses||How do you clean llama wool?||What do you call a group of llamas?|
|What do you call a female llama?||Will llamas eat blackberries?||Llama anatomy|
|Page Thirteen||Page Fourteen||Page Fifteen|
|How are llamas identified?||Cooling off llamas||Breeding related llamas|
|Picketing llamas at night while hiking||Breeding for spring or fall birthing||Attacking a haltered llama|
|Will llamas avoid poisonous plants?||Female won’t spit at the male||Llamas eating fences|
|Moving a pregnant llama||Stopping spitting behaviour||Spotting a sick llama|
|I can’t get near my new cria||How did the llama get its name?||Feeding a greedy llama|
|My baby llama cries||Telling genders apart||My llama attacked me|
|Can I put the male with new baby?||Washing a llama|
|Can males share a pasture with females?||Poisoning treatment|
|Are people allergic to llamas?||Fun questions we have received|
Who made these pages?
Brian and Jane Pinkerton
29343 Galahad Crescent
Canada V4X 2E4
E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org